碳达峰碳中和背景下推进供热低碳转型的路径思考

文章来源:《中国能源》杂志张建国2022-03-15 10:02

摘要:推进供热低碳转型既与民生改善密切相关,也是实现碳达峰、碳中和目标的重要领域。该文分析了我国建筑供热现状,判断供热需求趋势,并介绍了供热先进技术,提出我国建筑供热低碳转型的实施路径和政策建议。本文认为我国北方城乡供暖用能需求将逐渐进入峰值期,但南方家庭供暖需求和居民生活热水用能需求还将大幅增长。针对不同气候区和建筑类型的供暖需求特点,应采取不同的低碳供热路径,北方城镇建筑供暖应充分利用好既有的集中供热管网资源,着力优化热源结构;北方农户继续推行清洁取暖,开展散煤替代;南方家庭优先发展分户供热,鼓励以电代气。建议应把供热低碳转型纳入构建以新能源为主体的新型能源系统统筹考虑,出台支持政策发展可再生能源供热,调整天然气价格、供热计量等政策,同时加强技术研发示范,鼓励创新供热应用模式。
 
关键词:碳达峰、碳中和;供热;低碳转型;路径
 
Abstract: The low carbon transformation in heating area is an important field to achieve carbon peak and carbon neutrality strategy in China, which is closely related to people's livelihood improvement. In this paper, the current situation of heating in building sector in China has been analyzed, and the trend of the heating demand has been judged too. Meanwhile, this paper introduces some advanced heating technologies, and puts forward the pathways for heating to low carbon transformation and several policy suggestions. This point regarding the trend of heating demand in building sector in China is that, the energy consumption for space heating demand in north China is gradually increased to near peak, but energy consumption demand for space heating and residents' hot water in south China would increase sharply. The pathways for low carbon transformation in heating area should be different based on the different heating demand characteristics. For urban areas in the north, we should make full use of existing central heating pipelines resources and focus on heat source structure optimization. For rural areas in the north, continue to carry out the bulk coal substitute. Families in the South give priority to household heating and encourage electricity instead of gas. This paper suggests that the low carbon transformation in heating area should be considered as a part of whole to the new energy system strategy in China, and develop renewable energy heating, adjust the current policies of price of natural gas and heat metering, in addition to strengthen technology research and development, encourage innovation of heating application mode.
 
Key words: Carbon Peak & Carbon Neutrality; Heating; Low Carbon Transformation; Pathways
 
     推进城乡供热领域低碳转型,既与改善民生密切相关,也是实现碳达峰、碳中和目标需要关注的重点领域。目前,我国北方城镇建筑是以燃煤热电联产为主的大中型集中供热系统,作为主要供热方式,以保障冬季室温最低温度达标为供热目标,以单一种类能源、大管网、大型热力站及供热系统大调度为主要特征,传统供热系统存在化石能源热源占比高、管网系统规模大、热力平衡调节困难、存在过量供热等问题。随着城镇化率提升,北方城镇供热面积还将进一步增长。与此同时,大量南方家庭取暖的需求潜力正在快速释放。在碳达峰、碳中和的大背景下,供热需求“存量”的低碳转型和“增量”的低碳供热任重道远,必须创新供热方式,优化热源结构,全面提升供热系统技术与装备水平,加快推动传统供热行业向现代供热的转变,构建安全、低碳、清洁、高效、智慧、经济的供热系统。

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