德国内阁批准《退煤法案》终稿

文章来源:iGDP碳交易网2020-07-21 08:27

图片说明:德国退煤进程年度计划去除的煤电产量(褐煤和硬煤) 图片来源:每日头条
 
据欧洲动态(EURACTIV)6月25日报道,德国内阁于周三(6月24日)对《退煤法案》进行了最后修改,旨在将这一揽子法律草案在夏季休假前提交给德国联邦议院审议通过,除非欧盟委员会决定予以废除。
The German cabinet put the finishing touches to its Coal Phase-out Act on Wednesday (24 June), aiming for the draft package of laws to clear the Bundestag before the summer break, unless the European Commission decides to strike it down. EURACTIV Germany reports.
 
部长们商定了对三种不同文本的最终修正案,包括一部关于煤炭区域重组的法律,以及与褐煤发电厂运营商达成的一项协议,这些法律将共同管制德国到2035年逐步淘汰煤炭的进程。
Ministers agreed on final amendments to three different texts, including one law for the restructuring of coal regions, as well as an agreement with operators of lignite power plants, which together will regulate the phase-out of coal in Germany by 2035.
 
上述三个与退煤相关的法案的草案已经在几个月前提交给德国联邦议院。周三提交的修正案经由政府各派在国会两院,即联邦议院和联邦参议院协议商定,目的是加快立法进程。
The three draft coal phase-out bills have already been submitted to the Bundestag months ago. The amendments submitted on Wednesday were negotiated between government factions after consultations in the Bundestag and Bundesrat, the two chambers of Parliament, in a bid to speed up the legislative process.
 
《退煤法案》的变化包括更高的拍卖最高价格,经营者可以通过竞标方式为关闭其燃煤电厂索取赔偿。
Changes to the Coal Phase-out Act include a higher maximum price for auctions in which operators can bid for compensation for the closure of their coal plants.
 
与褐煤发电厂的运营商的协议的最终变更显然是在一夜之间达成的。与硬煤相比,此项约定包含固定的退出日期,这点此前已与州政府最高领导人以及能源公司达成协议。作为回报,运营商将获得总计43.5亿欧元的补偿金。
Final changes to the agreement were apparently agreed overnight with operators of lignite power plants. In contrast to hard coal, the deal contains fixed exit dates, which had  previously been agreed with state premiers and energy companies. In return, operators will receive compensation payments totalling €4.35 billion.
 
NGO ClientEarth的律师韦斯特法尔解释说,政客与电厂运营商之间的交易主要是为了给双方提供法律确定性。
The deal between politicians and power plant operators is primarily intended to provide legal certainty to both sides, explains Ida Westphal, a lawyer at NGO ClientEarth.
 
只要能源公司在约定日期之前关闭其褐煤厂,他们就有权获得赔偿。根据该协议,即使二氧化碳价格变化或对《可再生能源法》进行修改,运营商也不会被进一步索赔。
As long as energy companies shut down their lignite plants by the agreed date, they are entitled to compensation payments. Under the deal, operators will not receive any further claims, even if the CO2 price changes or amendments are made to the Renewable Energy Sources Act (EEG).
 
环境部长斯嘉文· 舒尔茨强调说,该协议明确提到将德国逐步淘汰煤炭的时间提前到2035年而不是2038年,是否可行将在这十年的后半程进行评估。
Environment Minister Svenja Schulze (SPD) emphasised that the agreement explicitly mentions bringing forward Germany’s coal phase-out to 2035 instead of 2038. Whether this is possible is to be reviewed in the later part of this decade.
 
“煤炭退出可以达成,”舒尔茨高兴地说道。
“The coal exit can arrive,” Schulze rejoiced. 
 
但是,对于韦斯特法尔而言,协议中并未明确规定运营商是否仍可对2030年后退出的可能性提起诉讼。
For Westphal, however, it is not clearly stated in the agreement whether operators can still sue against the possibility of bringing forward decommissioning after 2030.
 
她还质疑赔偿金本身,称与煤炭经营者的谈判是秘密进行的,没有民间社会团体的参与或审查。
She also questioned the compensation payments themselves, saying negotiations with coal operators took place behind closed doors, with no involvement or scrutiny from civil society groups.
 
正如德国杂志《明镜周刊》在4月份报道的那样,褐煤公司LEAG将因其按已经计划的时间表关闭工厂而获得17.5亿欧元。
As German magazine Der Spiegel reported in April, the lignite company LEAG is set to receive €1.75 billion for shutting down its plants in a timeframe that the company had already planned for anyway.
 
“有必要将补偿金额与发电厂的未来获利能力明确挂钩,以排除类似选择。”韦斯特法尔说: “但不幸的是,赔偿金的计算公式仍然未知”。
“It is necessary to clearly link the amount of compensation to the future profitability of the power plants to exclude this option,” Westphal said. “But unfortunately the formula for the compensation remains unknown”.
 
根据ClientEarth的说法,德国政府本来应该拒绝赔偿电厂所有者。
According to ClientEarth, the German government should have refused to compensate power plant owners in the first place.
 
在写给舒尔茨和经济大臣彼得·阿尔特迈尔的信中,环保组织呼吁政府澄清依法停产的情况。根据ClientEarth的说法,这是唯一的方法以防止“签订使退煤陷入胶着状态的合同,因为这对于气候政策而言已经太迟了,并为运营商提供了超出法律规定的持续运营保证”。
In a letter to Schulze and Economy Minister Peter Altmaier (CDU), the environmental group called on the government to clarify the shutdown by law. According to ClientEarth, this is the only way to prevent “the contracts from cementing a coal phase-out, which is too late anyway in terms of climate policy, and to give the operators a guarantee of continued operation that goes beyond the law.”
 
欧盟委员会将对德国政府与电厂所有者的交易保留最终决定权。欧盟高管将在两个月内检查关闭燃煤电厂的赔偿金是否符合欧盟国家援助规则,或是否造成市场扭曲。
The European Commission will have the last word on the German government’s deal with power plant owners. Within two months, the EU executive will examine whether the compensation payments for coal plant closures are in line with EU state aid rules or if they constitute a market distortion.
 
韦斯特法尔说:“欧盟委员会的审查将有望表明,绝不能支付这些可怕的款项。”
“The EU Commission’s examination will hopefully show that these horrendous payments must not be made,” Westphal says.

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