石油巨头减排方面还有很长的路要走

文章来源:中国石化新闻网碳交易网2020-11-16 10:49

据彭博社11月11日报道,39家全球大型石油和天然气公司中,只有5家宣布了碳减排目标,达到了避免气温上升2摄氏度所需的标准。只有20家企业已采取初步措施,披露了如何降低运营和用电产生排放量的计划,这样看起来,世界上大多数大型石油生产商并没有认真对待气候变化,包括雪佛龙(Chevron Corp.)、埃克森美孚(Exxon Mobil Corp.)、沙特阿美,埃尼集团、信实工业等。不过,葡萄牙石油公司Galp Energia SGP和伍德赛德石油公司(WoodsidePetroleumLtd)的减排目标符合国际能源署(IEA)2030年可持续发展设想(SDS)的目标。高级ESG分析师埃里克·凯恩(Eric Kane)表示:“我们引入了一个‘碳转变分数’来评估、比较和排名碳强度削减情况。”
 
    凯恩指出,这个分数可以让投资者衡量石油和天然气公司在降低运营排放强度方面的进展。如果它们成功地实现了公开宣布的温室气体减排目标,还可以判定就IEA基准来说,减排力度的大小。尽管存在风险,但许多公司尚未制定减排策略。
 
    在39家能源公司中,只有8家公司制定了降低碳排放的计划。碳排放是在客户燃烧化石燃料时产生的,这一数字约占大型石油公司总温室气体排放量的80%。这表明,随着经济从碳密集型能源的转变,该行业的大多数公司可能会面临重大挑战。
 
    与其它地区的竞争对手相比,欧洲一体化石油公司设定了更远大的目标。意大利埃尼集团(Eni)的目标是到2030年实现上游板块净零排放,到2040年实现整个公司的净零排放。荷兰皇家壳牌公司(Royal Dutch Shell Plc)、英国石油公司(BP Plc)、OMV AG、雷普索尔公司(Repsol SA)和桑托斯公司(Santos Ltd.)都表示,他们的目标是至少到2050年实现净零排放。
 
    根据彭博社消息,法国的道达尔、葡萄牙的Galp Energia、挪威的Equinor SA、印度的信实工业和英国石油公司在碳转换方面得分最高。Valero Energy Corp.、Formosa Petrochemical Corp.、Indian Oil Corp. 俄罗斯天然气工业股份公司Gazprom Neft和Phillips 66的表现最差,因为它们甚至还没有设定碳减排目标,也很少提供近期的排放信息,甚至是不提供。
 
    到2030年,油气公司必须将其部分经营业务的碳排放强度在2018年的基础上降低44%,以将全球变暖控制在2摄氏度以内。IEA估计,大部分减排可以通过减少甲烷排放来实现。根据IEA数据,意味着到2030年,石油产量需要下降到8430万桶/天(2018年为9540万桶),而天然气产量必须增加到39980亿立方米(2018年为39370亿立方米)。
 
    凯恩警告称,考虑到这部分要求减排的业务的排放量占全球排放量的近4%,如果不能达到这些目标,可能会对环境产生重大影响。
 
    王佳晶 摘译自 彭博社
 
    原文如下:
 
    Big Oil Has a Long Way to Go on Setting Emissions Targets
 
    Just five of the 39 largest oil and gas companies have announced carbon-reduction targets that match levels needed to avoid a 2-degree Celsius temperature increase. And only 20 have taken initial steps to disclose how they plan to lower emissions produced by both their operations and electricity use, known respectively as Scope 1 and Scope 2.Put those facts together and it may seem like most of the world’s biggest polluters aren’t serious about climate change. The list of passive offenders includes four of the top-five ranked energy companies by stock market value: Chevron Corp., Exxon Mobil Corp., PetroChina Co. and Saudi Aramco.Eni SpA, Total SA, Reliance Industries Ltd., Galp Energia SGPS SA and Woodside Petroleum Ltd. are the only companies that have targets in-line with the International Energy Agency’s Sustainable Development Scenario (SDS) for 2030, said Eric Kane, senior ESG analyst at Bloomberg Intelligence, which has introduced a “carbon transition score” to evaluate, compare and rank how companies are cutting their carbon intensity.
 
    The score allows investors to measure oil and gas companies’ progress in reducing their operational emissions intensity, Kane said. It also shows how they are positioned relative to each other and the IEA benchmark, assuming they are successful in achieving their publicly stated greenhouse gas reduction targets, he said.
 
    “Despite the risks, many companies have yet to develop reduction strategies,” Kane said.
 
    Of the 39 energy firms, just eight have established plans to lower Scope 3 emissions, which are generated when their customers burn fossil fuels, a figure that comprises about 80% of total greenhouse gases at large oil companies. That suggests most companies in the industry are likely to face significant challenges as the economy shifts away from carbon-intensive energy, Kane said.
 
    The European integrated oil companies have set more ambitious targets than competitors from other regions, he said. Italy’s Eni aims to have net-zero “upstream emissions” by 2030 and net-zero emissions for the entire company by 2040. Royal Dutch Shell Plc, BP Plc, OMV AG, Repsol SA and Santos Ltd. have said they’ll aim for net zero by at least 2050.
 
    Net zero refers to achieving an overall balance between emissions produced and emissions taken out of the atmosphere.
 
    France’s Total, Portugal’s Galp Energia, Norway’s Equinor SA, India’s Reliance Industries and BP have the best carbon transition scores, according to Bloomberg Intelligence. Valero Energy Corp., Formosa Petrochemical Corp., Indian Oil Corp. Gazprom Neft PJSC and Phillips 66 have the worst, because they have yet to even set carbon reduction targets and provide little or no information about their recent emissions performance, Kane said.
 
    By 2030, oil and gas companies must reduce their operational Scope 1 and 2 emissions intensity by 44% as compared with 2018 levels to be aligned with limiting warming below 2 degrees Celsius. The IEA estimates that a majority of these reductions can be achieved by cutting methane emissions. That means oil production needs to drop to 84.3 million barrels a day by 2030 (compared with 95.4 million in 2018), while natural gas production must increase to 3,998 billion cubic meters (as compared with 3,937 in 2018), according to the IEA.
 
    Given that Scope 1 and 2 emissions from companies account for almost 4% of global emissions, the failure to meet these targets could have a significant impact on the environment, Kane warned.

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